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Partly in reaction to such theories, another school of thought emerged which argued that Arthur had no historical existence at all.

Morris's Age of Arthur prompted the archaeologist Nowell Myres to observe that "no figure on the borderline of history and mythology has wasted more of the historian's time".

He owes his place in our history books to a 'no smoke without fire' school of thought The fact of the matter is that there is no historical evidence about Arthur; we must reject him from our histories and, above all, from the titles of our books.

Some scholars argue that Arthur was originally a fictional hero of folklore—or even a half-forgotten Celtic deity—who became credited with real deeds in the distant past.

They cite parallels with figures such as the Kentish Hengist and Horsa , who may be totemic horse-gods that later became historicised.

Bede ascribed to these legendary figures a historical role in the 5th-century Anglo-Saxon conquest of eastern Britain. Neither the Historia nor the Annales calls him " rex ": the former calls him instead " dux bellorum " leader of battles and " miles " soldier.

The consensus among academic historians today is that there is no solid evidence for his historical existence. Sites and places have been identified as "Arthurian" since the 12th century, [18] but archaeology can confidently reveal names only through inscriptions found in secure contexts.

The so-called " Arthur stone ", discovered in among the ruins at Tintagel Castle in Cornwall in securely dated 6th-century contexts, created a brief stir but proved irrelevant.

Several historical figures have been proposed as the basis for Arthur, ranging from Lucius Artorius Castus , a Roman officer who served in Britain in the 2nd or 3rd century, [21] to sub-Roman British rulers such as Riotamus , [22] Ambrosius Aurelianus , [23] Owain Ddantgwyn , [24] and Athrwys ap Meurig.

The origin of the Welsh name "Arthur" remains a matter of debate. The most widely accepted etymology derives it from the Roman nomen gentile family name Artorius.

In Welsh poetry the name is always spelled Arthur and is exclusively rhymed with words ending in -ur —never words ending in -wr —which confirms that the second element cannot be [g]wr "man".

An alternative theory, which has gained only limited acceptance among professional scholars, derives the name Arthur from Arcturus , the brightest star in the constellation Boötes , near Ursa Major or the Great Bear.

The familiar literary persona of Arthur began with Geoffrey of Monmouth 's pseudo-historical Historia Regum Britanniae History of the Kings of Britain , written in the s.

The textual sources for Arthur are usually divided into those written before Geoffrey's Historia known as pre-Galfridian texts, from the Latin form of Geoffrey, Galfridus and those written afterwards, which could not avoid his influence Galfridian, or post-Galfridian, texts.

The earliest literary references to Arthur come from Welsh and Breton sources. A academic survey led by Caitlin Green has identified three key strands to the portrayal of Arthur in this earliest material.

Some of these are human threats, such as the Saxons he fights in the Historia Brittonum , but the majority are supernatural, including giant cat-monsters , destructive divine boars , dragons, dogheads , giants, and witches.

On the one hand, he launches assaults on Otherworldly fortresses in search of treasure and frees their prisoners. On the other, his warband in the earliest sources includes former pagan gods, and his wife and his possessions are clearly Otherworldly in origin.

One of the most famous Welsh poetic references to Arthur comes in the collection of heroic death-songs known as Y Gododdin The Gododdin , attributed to 6th-century poet Aneirin.

One stanza praises the bravery of a warrior who slew enemies, but says that despite this, "he was no Arthur" — that is, his feats cannot compare to the valour of Arthur.

The Welsh prose tale Culhwch and Olwen c. The story as a whole tells of Arthur helping his kinsman Culhwch win the hand of Olwen , daughter of Ysbaddaden Chief-Giant, by completing a series of apparently impossible tasks, including the hunt for the great semi-divine boar Twrch Trwyth.

The 9th-century Historia Brittonum also refers to this tale, with the boar there named Troy n t. The later manuscripts of the Triads are partly derivative from Geoffrey of Monmouth and later continental traditions, but the earliest ones show no such influence and are usually agreed to refer to pre-existing Welsh traditions.

In addition to these pre-Galfridian Welsh poems and tales, Arthur appears in some other early Latin texts besides the Historia Brittonum and the Annales Cambriae.

In particular, Arthur features in a number of well-known vitae " Lives " of post-Roman saints , none of which are now generally considered to be reliable historical sources the earliest probably dates from the 11th century.

Cadoc delivers them as demanded, but when Arthur takes possession of the animals, they turn into bundles of ferns.

A less obviously legendary account of Arthur appears in the Legenda Sancti Goeznovii , which is often claimed to date from the early 11th century although the earliest manuscript of this text dates from the 15th century and the text is now dated to the late 12th to early 13th century.

Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae , completed c. He incorporates Arthur's father Uther Pendragon , his magician advisor Merlin , and the story of Arthur's conception, in which Uther, disguised as his enemy Gorlois by Merlin's magic, sleeps with Gorlois's wife Igerna Igraine at Tintagel , and she conceives Arthur.

On Uther's death, the fifteen-year-old Arthur succeeds him as King of Britain and fights a series of battles, similar to those in the Historia Brittonum , culminating in the Battle of Bath.

He then defeats the Picts and Scots before creating an Arthurian empire through his conquests of Ireland, Iceland and the Orkney Islands.

After twelve years of peace, Arthur sets out to expand his empire once more, taking control of Norway, Denmark and Gaul. Gaul is still held by the Roman Empire when it is conquered, and Arthur's victory leads to a further confrontation with Rome.

Arthur and his warriors, including Kaius Kay , Beduerus Bedivere and Gualguanus Gawain , defeat the Roman emperor Lucius Tiberius in Gaul but, as he prepares to march on Rome, Arthur hears that his nephew Modredus Mordred —whom he had left in charge of Britain—has married his wife Guenhuuara Guinevere and seized the throne.

Arthur returns to Britain and defeats and kills Modredus on the river Camblam in Cornwall, but he is mortally wounded.

He hands the crown to his kinsman Constantine and is taken to the isle of Avalon to be healed of his wounds, never to be seen again.

How much of this narrative was Geoffrey's own invention is open to debate. He seems to have made use of the list of Arthur's twelve battles against the Saxons found in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum , along with the battle of Camlann from the Annales Cambriae and the idea that Arthur was still alive.

Whatever his sources may have been, the immense popularity of Geoffrey's Historia Regum Britanniae cannot be denied. Well over manuscript copies of Geoffrey's Latin work are known to have survived, as well as translations into other languages.

The old notion that some of these Welsh versions actually underlie Geoffrey's Historia , advanced by antiquarians such as the 18th-century Lewis Morris, has long since been discounted in academic circles.

While it was not the only creative force behind Arthurian romance, many of its elements were borrowed and developed e. The popularity of Geoffrey's Historia and its other derivative works such as Wace 's Roman de Brut gave rise to a significant numbers of new Arthurian works in continental Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, particularly in France.

There is clear evidence that Arthur and Arthurian tales were familiar on the Continent before Geoffrey's work became widely known see for example, the Modena Archivolt , [74] and "Celtic" names and stories not found in Geoffrey's Historia appear in the Arthurian romances.

Whereas Arthur is very much at the centre of the pre-Galfridian material and Geoffrey's Historia itself, in the romances he is rapidly sidelined.

So, he simply turns pale and silent when he learns of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere in the Mort Artu , whilst in Yvain, the Knight of the Lion , he is unable to stay awake after a feast and has to retire for a nap.

Lacy has observed, whatever his faults and frailties may be in these Arthurian romances, "his prestige is never—or almost never—compromised by his personal weaknesses However, the most significant for the development of the Arthurian legend are Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart , which introduces Lancelot and his adulterous relationship with Arthur's queen Guinevere , extending and popularising the recurring theme of Arthur as a cuckold , and Perceval, the Story of the Grail , which introduces the Holy Grail and the Fisher King and which again sees Arthur having a much reduced role.

Perceval , although unfinished, was particularly popular: four separate continuations of the poem appeared over the next half century, with the notion of the Grail and its quest being developed by other writers such as Robert de Boron , a fact that helped accelerate the decline of Arthur in continental romance.

Up to c. The most significant of these 13th-century prose romances was the Vulgate Cycle also known as the Lancelot-Grail Cycle , a series of five Middle French prose works written in the first half of that century.

The cycle continued the trend towards reducing the role played by Arthur in his own legend, partly through the introduction of the character of Galahad and an expansion of the role of Merlin.

During this period, Arthur was made one of the Nine Worthies , a group of three pagan, three Jewish and three Christian exemplars of chivalry.

The Worthies were first listed in Jacques de Longuyon 's Voeux du Paon in , and subsequently became a common subject in literature and art.

The development of the medieval Arthurian cycle and the character of the "Arthur of romance" culminated in Le Morte d'Arthur , Thomas Malory 's retelling of the entire legend in a single work in English in the late 15th century.

Malory based his book—originally titled The Whole Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Table —on the various previous romance versions, in particular the Vulgate Cycle, and appears to have aimed at creating a comprehensive and authoritative collection of Arthurian stories.

The end of the Middle Ages brought with it a waning of interest in King Arthur. Although Malory's English version of the great French romances was popular, there were increasing attacks upon the truthfulness of the historical framework of the Arthurian romances — established since Geoffrey of Monmouth's time — and thus the legitimacy of the whole Matter of Britain.

So, for example, the 16th-century humanist scholar Polydore Vergil famously rejected the claim that Arthur was the ruler of a post-Roman empire, found throughout the post-Galfridian medieval "chronicle tradition", to the horror of Welsh and English antiquarians.

Top Questions. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. A great victory was won at Mons Badonicus a site not identifiable toward now it was Saxons who emigrated, and the British lived in peace all through the….

Other legends, dating from the midth century, claim that the early Christian St. Joseph of Arimathea went…. It came into the possession of King Leodegran of Carmelide, who gave it to Arthur as part of the dowry of his daughter Guinevere when she married Arthur.

Admission to the fellowship of the Round Table was reserved for only the most valiant,…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox!

Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times had a more positive response to the film and awarded it three out of four stars, writing, "That the movie works is because of the considerable production qualities and the charisma of the actors, who bring more interest to the characters than they deserve.

There is a kind of direct, unadorned conviction to the acting of Clive Owen and the others; raised on Shakespeare, trained for swordfights, with an idea of Arthurian legend in their heads since childhood, they don't seem out of time and place like the cast of Troy.

They get on with it. Robin Rowland criticised critics who disliked the film for its Dark Age setting. However, these works have little in common with the film's story and Sarmatian angle.

In response to criticism of the setting, consultant on the film Linda A. Malcor said: "I think these film-makers did a better job than most could have done when it comes to giving us something besides knights in tin foil and damsels in chiffon An unrated director's cut of the film was released; it has extra footage of battle scenes as well as more scenes between Lancelot and Guinevere, whose traditional love triangle with Arthur is only hinted at here.

The battle scenes are also bloodier and more graphic. Several scenes are also omitted from the director's cut, including one where the knights sit around a camp fire asking about their intended Sarmatian life, in which Bors reveals that his children do not even have names, most simply have numbers.

In addition, a sex scene between Guinevere and Arthur is shifted to be chronologically before he is informed of the incoming Saxons towards Hadrian's Wall.

This seemingly minor change arguably helps the story flow more smoothly. In the original film he is seen in full battle armour, contemplating a broken image of Pelagius on his floor, and then is disturbed by a call to come outside.

When he comes outside, he is hastily putting on a shirt, and his hair is disheveled. In the Director's Cut, after an intimate moment between Arthur and Guinevere explaining Arthur's morals, they carry on into their sexual encounter, and are thus disturbed so that Arthur can be briefed on the Saxons.

During the sexual encounter, he is wearing the same outfit he wears during the briefing. The scene where he is examining Pelagius's image is removed.

Despite these many drastic diversions from the source material including the Welsh Mabinogion , the producers of the film attempted to market it as a more historically accurate version of the Arthurian legends.

Other liberties were taken with the actors' appearances: Keira Knightley's breasts were enlarged for the US theatrical film poster.

This practice angered Knightley, who says that it "comes from market research that clearly shows that other women refuse to look at famous actresses and stars with small breasts.

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Retrieved Trioedd Ynys Prydein , pp. King Arthur - Key historical facts. Retrieved September 9, Scott Littleton - A. It came off kind of odd, for some reason, when they spoke it.

So we went with Wodes. These dates are not universally accepted, as some scholars argue for a date in the mid 5th century. Box Office Mojo.

Retrieved March 15, Rotten Tomatoes. July 7, The New York Times. Chicago Sun-Times. Films based on Arthurian legends. The Evil Forest Parsifal Parsifal Films directed by Antoine Fuqua.

Films produced by Jerry Bruckheimer. Categories : English-language films s historical films s war films films s action drama films American films American historical films American war drama films Arthurian films British action drama films British films British historical films British war drama films Fiction narrated by a dead person Fiction set in Roman Britain Films set in the Roman Empire Films set in the 5th century Fictional-language films Films set in classical antiquity Scottish Gaelic-language films Films produced by Jerry Bruckheimer Latin-language films Touchstone Pictures films Films shot at Pinewood Studios Films directed by Antoine Fuqua Films scored by Hans Zimmer Picts in fiction drama films.

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