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Rom an a. Algunas invesligacoes sobre St itiztuyypanifm de qiiiropteros. Oswaldo Cruz, DtAS, E. Mello, O. Costa, R. Damasceno, and M. Diaz-UnciRia, C.

Nematodes parasites, nouveaux ou interessanls du Venezuela. Coccidiosis in the kangaroo rats of California.

California Publ. ZooL, , Dolk-herty. Evolution of zooparasitic groups in the phylum Nematoda with special reference to host distribution.

Dunn L. Experiments in the transmission of TrypanosDnm hippkum Darling with the vampire bat, Di'. Chauaud, Nematodes Trichostrongyloidea parasites de Microcbiropieres, Ann.

Parasitol, Hum. Dusuabek, F. Parasitic mites of Cuban bats from the point of view' of ecology and zoogeography [In Russian], Wiad. Warszawa , To the phytogeny of genera of the family Myobiidae Acarina.

Acarol- ogia. To the phylogeny and zoogeography of bats Chiroptera based on the study of their parasitic miles Acarina. Lynx ser. Zuniga, M.

Alfaro, and E. Trypanosomes of Costa Rican feral mammals. Esslinger, j. Development of Poroi epiushix cmmli Humboldt, Pentastomida in experimental intermediate ho.

J, Parasitol. Ft ot H. Schizotrypanosomes des cheiropteresen Guayane Frangaise. Jiihscs, Cesiodes de Ver ebrados IV.

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Vlaracay , Garnham, P. C', C. A contribution to the study of the haematozoon parasites of bats. Inst, Oswaldo Cruz. Chiropteran mortaHty, Pp.

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Grosk, B. S,, AND C. Geograph, Med. A new species of CunJUn from Colombian bats. Mycopath, Mycol. Sa- bouraudia Inil- Soc. Nema parasites in embryo bats.

Vampire bats as vectors and hosts of equine and bovine trypanosomes. Acta Trop. Hoare, C. A,, AND E. Nature, Chairman , W.

Bai amuih. E, C Bovee. Corliss, M, Gojdics, R. R, Kudo, N. Weiser, and D. A revised classification of the Phylum Protozoa.

Protozool,, lN ;t IS, W. Pallerns of evolution in parasitic nematodes. Taylor, ed. Third Symp, British. Biack- wcll. Sci, Pub.

Helminios de la Republica dc Costa Rica. Nematodos 3. Presencia de Liionuisoities pencil n. Kara r A. Atlantic Fish,. N, V, N, The disiributian and epizootology of toxoplasmosis among w ild animals.

The life history of a new trematode encysted in the nymphs of stone Hies. Kurume Med. HNAii, F. Die Parasiten der Chiroplern. Brunn, 51pp. Lmsson, R, Parasitological studies in British Honduras.

Med, ParasitoL. AND J. Tfixek,a de Freitas. Estudo sobre as Capillariinae parasites de mamiferos. Hisliostrongylus agtacanihus n. Nematoda: Slrongyloidea.

Benjamin Baptisia. Li:m, H,. Teixekv de Freitas, and M. Brasil Biol,,. Algunos nematodes de murcielagos coleccionados en el Paraguay, Rev.

Brasil Biol,, Tooss, A, Notizen zur Helminlhologie Aegyptens. Uber einige neue Trema- toden der acgyptischen Fauna. Uniform endings for the names of higher ta.

Protozoan Parasites of Domestic Animals and of Man, 2nd ed. Minnesota, 41 2 pp. Levine, N. Ivens, Illinois Biol. Illinois Press, Urbana, pp.

EViNE, N. Ivens, and F. ParasitoL, 4] Noias sobre Mesostigmata neoiropicales, [ Spin- turnicidae. Acta Biol, Venezuelica.

The systematic position of the bats Dcsmotlns and Chiionyt fen's based on host-parasite relationships Mammalia: Chiroptera.

Amer, Micro. Parasites as an auxiliary source of information about the biology of Pacific salmons genus Oitcorhyucfnts.

Fish Res. Bd, Canada, Imporiancia de los murcielagos para la salud pijblica. Antioquia Med. Observations on human, monkey and bat trypanosomes and their vectors in Colombia.

Imporiancia de los murcielagos del Iropico Americano en a salud publica. Lumsden and D, A. Evans, cds. Academic Press, New York, xxvi pp.

Duarte, R. Trypunosomu pijhfitfi n. J,, and E. Gftosf:, Mari IN, D. R, Mavk, E. Evolutionary aspects of host specificity among parasites of vertebrates.

Pp Baer, ed. Inst, Zool. Mexico Hist. Smithsonian Misc. Wiss,, Wien, II sottordine delgi acrofalli ordinate scientificumente secondo i risulta- menti delle indagini anatomiche de embriogenichc.

Vencto Sci. Lett, Arti for 1H Obligate und additionalc svirte der H cl mint hen. Paras i ol. Mammalian phylogeny, Pp. Zool, Univ. Neuchatel, pp.

Km, L. Coccidia and Coccidiosis. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin. Notas sobre las especies de Filaroidea enconiradas en Cuba. TiinesiSiintpyiits sarrei n.

Cuban a Hi. Notas sobre la fauna parasitological de Cuba. Cubana Hist. Nota sobre el genero iiistutstroniiylns Molin, , Rev.

Habana, , Athesniiit parkeri n. Dicrocoeliidae parasito del in- tesilno dc Anihens Jamak-ensis purvipcs Chiroplera. Pit ,ANO, F, Aspectos de Medicina Tropical en Venezuela O.

Caracas, ed. Jmprenta Universiiana, pp. Pkldhoe, S.. Nat, Hist. Raddvskv, F. The Macronyssidae and Laelapidae Acarina; Mesosligmata parasitic on bats.

Eniomok, Cestodes of the genus iiytnaufiepis Wejnland. Canadian J. Zook, , REN. Contribuciones a la parasitologia Colombiana.

Gro h,. Contribucion al estudio de trypanosomas humanos y de animales en Colombia. Trypanosomas humanos. Sanmari in, and J. A survey of the blood parasites of vertebrates in eastern Colombia.

Morsv, and M. Med, Hyg. Roi ver-Bonnet. H, de, J. Lei vveed. Marinkeli T. Toxoplasmosis in Latin-American countries, Trop.

Rldnick, a, , A revision of the mites of the family Spinturnicidae tAcarina. Rvsavv, B,. Parasit i parazilozy cheloveka i zhivotnikh Kiev.

A synopsis of the family Linguatulidae. SanixjROLind, j, H, Ann, Mag. Hist,, ,. SctfMiDT, G. Revision of the class Archiacamhocephala Meyer, Phylum Acanthocephala , with emphasis on Oligacanihorhynchidae Southwell ei Macfic, Parasitoh, Acanthocephala of captive primates, Pp.

VV, Finnes and S. Karger, eds. Biological relationships of the Penlastomida; a bibliography on the PeniastomiUa.

Stum EY, A. An attempt to revise the family Lingualidae, Arch. Shut rs, R. Vaschnil, Suva Tahoada, G. Lista de los parasites hallados en murcielagos Cubanos.

Poeyana La Habana , scrie. A, Siii-ES, C. Nolan, Key-catalogue of parasites reported for Chirop- lera bats with their possible public health importance.

Health Bull. Health Serv. Stlinkard, H. Parasitic flatworms from Yucatan. Washington Publ. SzjDat, t. Uber die Parasitenfauna von Ferctchfhys trndut Cuv.

Anwendung und einige Fofgerungen aus den parasiiogen- etischen Regeln. VAi niviESO. Los murcielagos y la salud publica.

Estudio con especial referencia a Puerto Rico. Boh Ofic. Teixhra de Freitas, J. Sobre as especies do genero OipiHaria Zeder, , parasites de morcegos.

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Coniribucoes para oconchenimemo de Lecithodendriidae, de Brasil. Oswaldo Cm? Brasil Cien. Insi, Osvvaldo Cruz..

Midland Nat.. Some observations on Ecto- and Endoparasites of Chiroptera. Southern Methodi. UwEiAkEfi, J. Surface topography of llyinefififtpis ifintifmut hy.

Saunders, Philadelphia, vii-H pp. Vonj-S, O. Berlin Muench. W'LKhen, On the ancient relations between New Zealand and South America.

New Zealand Inst. I97L Studies on the parasites of Chiroptera. I, Helminths of Jamaican bats of the genera Tinhuidti, Chilouycnri.

W'ashington, Studies on the parasites of Chiroptera. Wildlife Dis.. WD microfiche, no. AND V. Pp, , in Ectoparasites of Panama tR.

L- Wenzel and V- J, Tipton, eds. Field Mus, Nat. Tipion, and a. Tipton, eds. Field Mus. Wueai, B. E, An additional note on the distribution of Hiacanfha desmodu, Canadian J.

Present knowledge of the distribution of Trypnno- sonni trnzi in reservoir animals and vectors. J, Trop. Wood, S.

F, , Mamma! YaMaguti, S. Systema Helminthum. Voh 3. The nematodes of vertebrates, pari 1. Special modes of nutrition in some digenetic tremaiodes.

Canada, Synopsis of Digenetic trematodes of vertebrates. Keigaku Publ. Spaitt urc armfivai in fpluthetico! Taxu an- urninged in tilphnhetkul order, lutd e.

Amnirn caudifer Protozoa Trypantfsonta vespenilionis Trypanoxonui sp. TryfhiiiitMiitiit ve. Nematoda Faiiria. Weimi, Jr. Loomis Phyllostoniiitid bats harbor an assemblage of ectoparasites numbering more than species that represent 1 5 families of acarines and two families of dipteran insects.

Among all chiropieran families, only the vespertilionids, with 18 acarine and six insect families, have more parasites.

The nycteribiids are represented by 13 species in the genus BasiluL The remainder consists of species of miles and ticks presently recognized in 49 genera.

In addition, Gerberg and Goble ! Other insects, for example cu lie ids, psychodids, and ceratopogonids, which may be associated with bats were not included in this review.

A comprehensive worldwide list of bats and their acarine parasites, including phyllostoniatid-associated mites and ticks, w-as compiled by Anciaux de Faveaux Additional recent citations are listed under each family.

Macronyssidae Oudeinans, Sixteen species of macronyssid miles comprising six genera have been described from phyllostomatid bats.

Nycteronyssus desnu? Radovsky suggested that the macronyssids evolved from progenitors that closely resembled extant laelapids because certain features are common to Neokielaps Hirst and Nohdaelpas W'omersley in the Laelapinae and to Bewskdla Domrovv, khoronyssns Kolenati, and Patichoronyssiis in the Macronyssidae.

This relationship between the laelapines and macronyssids seems to suggest a relatively recent association wuth bats. Parichorottysstis and the others of this group apparently are now in the early phases of this process, A number of the RailfonHeila species have adapted, as depicted by the protonymphal stage, to a higher level of specialization.

Radford- iidki ntOfutphyUi, R. Each of these species may cause denial and peridontal destruction in bats Phillips. Once adapted to hernatophagy, the procurement of new' hosts seems less difficult than in the case of adaptation to dermal hisiophagy, w'hich involves exposure to a greater variation in nutritional and other components.

Other stages of the life cycle are unknown. Although Stea! Bat macronyssids are probably in or near the bat roosts when not on the host.

Mating, however, most likely occurs on the host. Aside from morphological correlations and overlap of features of egg development, relationships may be draw n between hosts and geographic ranges of Macronyssus species and the phyllostoniatid- parasitizing macronyssid genera.

Macrouyssus has a cosmopolitan distribution as do its primary vespertilionid hosts. Evidence for the rise of these genera from a Macronysstis-hkc progenitor may be seen in the relationship found today between Old World species of Mac- roiiyssiLs and Old World vespertilionid, rhinolophid, and hipposiderid bats.

Macrotiyssits granuiosns Kolenati , M. Host specificity coupled w'ith the adaptive strategies of certain macronyssids, for example, species of Radfordlella.

Cameroniem was established as morphologically distinct from Petiplischrus by Machado-Allison and its apparent host specificity on species of Ptero- notiis and Mormoops prompted Machado-Allison to suggest separate familial status for the mormoopids.

Later, Smith separated mormooplds from phyllostomatids on the basis of various morphological criteria and referred to Machado-Allison's statements about parasite-host relationships for additional support.

Eyndhovenia Rudnick I monotypic with E. Two of the three kmnvn species are found only on phyllostomatids. The species S, chilonycief i. Both S.

Only female spelacorhynchids have been collected although larvae have been dissected from gravid females. Fain tv al. In addition, Cooley and Kohls reported A.

Jones tv al. Species of Ambiyonima and Ixodes arc generally not hat affiliates and the records from phyllo. Only a single larva of fA mimon has been recovered from a phyllostomatid, Minwn crenufatwu from Bolivia, whereas 38 specimens were removed from a number of Uruguayan Eptesicus hmsiUcnnis.

Looking at hosl-parasite relationships, indications are that the members of the subgenus Alevtorobius may have arisen from a line closely related to the Old World Puvtovskyeiki, as each subgenus parasitizes a wide variety of hosts such as reptiles, birds, and burrowing and nonburrowing mammals.

However, because members of both subgenera are found on birds, O. The possibility of the original migration of Aivcfor- ohius progenitors via a bat carrier common to both the Old and New Worlds seems remote, at least relative to present day distributional patterns of Ornhho- doros species.

Even though specimens of Alcaorohins have been collected from vespertilionid, emballonurid, and molossid bats of the New World, only one record of this subgenus has been recorded Anciaux de Faveaux, from any Old World representatives of these bat families.

Already adapted to feeding on a w'ide variety of mammalian hosts, invading species of the Alevionybim line adjusted to using bats, especially phyllostoniatids, as hosts.

A number of mainland licks developed as species limited to the phyl- lo. Madrid Koma JDie juerfl angeregten? A, Thuani hÜtorianun fui temporis L.

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Bams reported an acanthella of Pachi- semis sp. Biol, Trop. Diaz-UnciRia, C. Type Www.Darmowe Gry alities. Uhelaker, Robert D.

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Phillips, Gary W. Grimes, and G. Echolocation and Communication. Feeding Habits. Gardner, U. Movements and Behavior.

Brock Fenton and Thomas FI. Known only from the New World, most genera of phyllostomatids are limited distributionally to tropical environments, but some representatives occur as far north as the southwestern United States and others southward to the northern parts of Argentina and Chile; some species also are distributed on the Bahamas and islands of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

With the advent in recent years of improved methods of collecting bats, a tremendous wealth of information on phyllostomatids has been gathered, and it is the purpose of this publication, which ultimately will contain more than 20 individual chapters, to bring these data together in order to assess what now is known about the family and to provide a departure point for further studies.

In order to establish a workable approach by which reference could be made consistently to taxa throughout the series, an annotated checklist by Jones and Carter published in the first part of the series was circulated to all authors.

Each was asked to follow the nomenclature and systematic arrangement in the checklist or, alternatively, to document departures therefrom. This system, it is hoped, will allow readers to relate information!

Manuscripts first were solicited from contributors in Most had been received by the end of , and Part I of the series was published in As editorial work progressed, some authors provided up-dated information and all authors of chapters in Part II had the opportunity to insert limited materials at the time they received galley proofs early in Therefore, content is as current as reasonably could be anticipated for a project of this kind.

Otherwise, authors were allowed broad latitude concerning material to be included in their chapters. Accordingly, and for obvious other reasons, some chapters overlap others in content.

Even though some redundacy has resulted, we thought it best to have a section on the cited literature with each contribution.

Jones , pp. May Robert J, Baker J. Dilford C. Uhelaker, Robert D. Specian, and Donald W. To understand better the biology of phyllostomaiid bats, it is worthw'hile to examine their parasites.

The distribution of parasites, especially endohelminths, is governed largely by climate, distribution of intermediate hosts, feeding habits of the hosts, evolutionary age, physiology, and availability of the host species.

Specifically, this report includes a systematic review of ail parasitic species of Protozoa, Acanthocephala, Pentastomida, Platyhelminthes, and Nematoda wcurring in the Phyllostoniatidae; an addition of unpublished parasite collection records; and a preliminary appraisal of various factors that have influenced the dispersal and special ion in the endoparasites of leaf-nosed bats.

Historical Review Published works dealing w ith parasites of leaf-nosed bats are few. The earliest studies were probably those of Kolenali w'ho examined bats in Brazil and described several nematodes of the genus Capillaria Zeder, , Molin described and reported on the anatomy of Histiosirofigylus coronams from Phyl- iiKstoftta sp.

The tremalodes of Brazilian bats were studied later in good detail by Travassos , , The first reports of helminths from North American phyllosiomatids were by Caballero y Caballero In , he and Grocott reported on helminths in bats from Central American countries.

There are many reports of parasitic worms from tropical bats, I he majority of these reports deal with descriptions of individual species and are presented in the systematic part of this report.

In addition to the above mentioned reports, several brief surveys arc available, namely, Chitwood and Slunkard in Yucatan, Mexico, and Silva Taboada and Barns and del Valle in Cuba.

With the exception of the haemotlagellates, the protozoan parasites of bats have not been studied well.

Several reviews of parasites from bats in general are available. Stiles and Nolan listed all known parasites of bats, including eclo and endoparasitic forms.

Caballero y Caballero and Grocott published a significant w'ork review ing the ircma- todes from bats, Ubelaker published a general account of parasites from bats and in the following year, Barus and Rysavy analyzed the biogeng- raphy of nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae occurring in mienKhirop- lera.

Webster reviewed the helminths of bats north of the United Stales- Mcxico border. Collectors on these trips included Cesar Estrada R.

CER , l. Hardy LMH , J. JKJ , rimothy E. Kilgore, Jr. DLK and John E. Ubelaker JEU. Duszynski in Costa Rica. Wherever possible, museum accession numbers are given for host specimens.

Nematode specimens were cleared either in warmed lacto- phenol or glycerine prior to study. Specimens studied by.

Fixed specimens were dehydrated in an ascending series of ethanol solutions to 70 per cent, transferred to 5 per cent glycerine per cent ethanol solution from which the alcohol w'as allow'ed to evaporate, and cleared in Only two of these subphyla Apicomplexa, the coccidia, malaria, and toxoplasma-type organisms; Sarcomastigophora, the flagellates and amoebae contain parasites frequently found in mammals.

Unfortunately, there is a considerable paucity of information on the protozoan parasites of all bats, w'orldwide, and such studies would provide much new' information to future workers.

Type host. Inasmuch as the Coccidia tend to be particularly host specific, the information from such studies could provide data to indicate and help us understand certain phylogenetic relationships.

Presumably, eimerians and related taxa for example, Kiossui variahiiis, see Levine ei ai, have not been found in phyllostomaiids because no one has bothered to look for them.

The 13 reported species of bat eimerians are only a fraction of the number which must actually parasitize these mammals; Eimcria spp.

Although some species of Eimeria occur in more than one host, we also know that many hosts harbor two or more species that may be unique to them.

If we conservatively assume that there is a least one Eimeria species per bat species, as was done for rodents Levine and Ivens, , w'C can estimate that there may be about species of Eimeria alone in bats.

The number described already is only 1. Site of inf eel iotL —Red blood cells. Type locality. Other record —This species was seen in the blood of Glossophapa soricina from Para, Brazil, by Deane and Deane , but their identification w'as both incorrect and incomplete Garnham et aL, ; Garnham, He did not specify whether the California and Texas parasites were the same or different species.

Only one report exists of a haemosporidian in phyllostomatid bats, and that W'as by Deane and Deane , who found w'hat they also described as P!

In a later report, Garnham synonymized P. Type locality, —Foothills and mountains, Southern Tunisia, North Africa, Other tecordsr —Roever-Bonnet et uL , using the Sabin-Fcldman dye test for toxoplasmosis, found the sera of two Artibeus litenuus from Tibu, Santander, Colombia to be positive for this parasite.

Thus, to be consistent with current trends of thought, w'e will follow the classification of the Trypanosomatidae as outlined by Levine and the uniform terminology of body forms introduced by Hoare and Wallace Dias 0 also stated that in Durham examined the stomach contents of a mosquito that had just fed on the bkwd of Pliyllo.

Durham, apparently, did not describe these forms nor specifically identify the host. The first name given to a bat haemoflagellate was in w'hen Battaglia, in Italy, identified a very small trypomastigote form from the blood of Fipistfellus sp.

Vespertilionidae as Trypanosoma vesperfilionis. This name has persisted and has been assigned since to trypanosomes of bats from Africa, the Americas, and Europe.

However, the validity of this species is, today, suspect by many authors Table 1. Since then, several reports have documented the occurrence of trypanosomes in phyllostomatids, but in most, the information presented was scanty or specific identification of those forms was not made.

Thus to date, only six valid specific names T. T, cquituinh T. Tineanis, 7. When specific identifications were not made, the haemotlafellates from these hosts were identified as sp.

In addition to these two main groups of bat trypanosomes, there are other large trypanosomes that do not fit well into either group: 7.

The trypanosomes that have been described from phyllosiomatid hosts and the countries in which they were found are listed in Table 1, Additional pertinent information for each species is presented below-.

Iklem and Para. Brazil Para, Brazil Panama Para. Brazil Venezuela Brazil. Venezuela Fioch cs ts!. Dias and Pifano. T ry iaiM. Site of infevtion. Other records, —Sec Table 1.

Reomrks, —Trypanosomes morphologically similar to T. In addition, the length of the trypomastigote blood form approximately 20 micron. However, Marinkelle!

A translation of his original statements p. If, by means of repeated pas- sages, one succeeds in obtaining infections that are more and more prolonged, finally adapting the trypanosome to the bat, it is possible that this adaptation will be made at the cost of the loss of infectiveness to other animals, because of a real effect which the organic environment of the mammal exercises on the nagcllaie.

If this could be verified, 7". Such information points out the need for much additional work before the T. Some of the first reports of T.

Additional records to 7. Trypanosoma equinutii Voges, Type fum. Site of infectiotL —Extracellular blood parasite.

Fe and Corrientes" sec Voges, Tryparnmwia etfifinimi infects cattle in an asymptomatic form, but produces a severe disease in horses called Mai de Caderas throughout much of South America, especially Brazil.

Other rei itnis. After these two species became established in the New' World, they acquired, in addition to blood sucking flies Tabaniidae , a new type of vector, the vampire bat.

Vampires are ideal vectors because their infection from cattle harboring small numbers of parasites is ensured by the large amount of blood taken during a meal 16 to 50 milliliters Hoarc, Dunn first documented that the vampire bat Desnioilus rotundus w'as a natural vector of T.

Site of infection. Typ e IfH'a I ity. Remarks ,—Since this species was originally described, it has been mentioned on only three occasions in the literature.

The validity of this species is, therefore, questionable. Vanipyraps litieaiiLs is not known to occur in Venezuela, and the identification of the host is probably erroneous.

Trypanosoma phyUostomae Cartaya, Type hosi. Ret narks. Trypanosoma pifanoi Markinelle and Duarte, Type hosts. She of infection.

Type ItH alities. Other records. Like frypanosotna pessoai, developmental stages of this species could not be isolated in tissue sections of inoculated laboratory mice nor was multiplication observed in tissue cultures of mouse fibroblast cells or in the triatomid Rhodniiis proUxas by xenodiagnosis Marinkelle and Duarte, Only three of triatomids so inoculated lived for four weeks postinoc- iilation PI and at 30 days PI their hemolymph had numerous, long, slender.

Trypaiiosoinii rangdi-like Remarks. Neither anterior station development nor signs of homolymph infection took place and attempts to infect laboratory mice with these forms were unsuccessful.

TrypanosuJiia vesperfilicmis Battaglia, Type host. Site of iafeahih —Extracellular blood parasite. Remarks, —Since the original description of this parasite from vespertiHoiiid bats in Europe, it has been observed on several i ccasions in bats of the Americas for example, Deane, , but few reports exist of its occurrence in phyl- lostomatids 1 able 1.

Trypanosoma spp. Remarks, —Unidentified forms of trypanosomes have been found in phyb lostomatids on many occasions. Site Small intestine.

Type locaTtiy. Other revords. Jafttaiceasis coWcclidd in Puerto Rico. It has apparently not been recorded since its original description.

It should be emphasized that intermediate hosts listed above represent experiments based on captive animals; the intermediate hosts in nature are not known.

Inasmuch as the effect of N. Type —Unable to locate. The genus PonHephalus is among the most highly evolved of the peniastonies.

All species parasitize snakes as adults, and most may utilize a mammal in their development as does A crofuli, the only species recorded from bats Self, The life cycle of P.

From experiments with albino rats, it is known that the larvae hatch in the intestine and migrate through the w-all into the viscera and mesen- taries, leaving a trail of host neutrophils.

After reaching the liver or other organs, they molt and eventually form sixth stage nymphs that show marked sexual differentiation.

Development of the sixth stage nymph is completed in three months and it is then infective to the snake definitive host. Infection occurs by ingestion of the infected bat host, w'hich may be a more common occurrence than previously suspected Gillette and Kimbrough, As seen in Fig.

I, the lateral hooks project con- spicut iisly from the surface and undoubtedly cause the primary destruction of host tissue. As the parasite develops in the liver, and in probable response to the hooks, a granulomatous lesion forms.

PorcfcephalKs vrofali is also recorded in man Stiles and Nolan, Siic of infeefion. I'ype locaihy. Xmahit Teka. Anetilerotreiiia eduardoeahalkroi Freitas.

Type hHdlity. Other reconls. Site of lufecilon. Type lovuiity. Site of infecdofh —Small intestine. Type locality ,—Angra dos Reis, Brazil.

The above report is the first listing of P. Site of infea km. Members of this genus are unique because, unlike most digenetic trematodes, they lack a digestive tract.

This evolutionary structural modification most certainly restricts their habitat selection in modern day hosts. Yamaguli examined histologically the parenchymal cells of A.

No glandular-secretory cell types have ever been reported Yamaguli, Although five of the six species of Ancnicrotretmi occur in phyUostornatid bats, they are not specific.

Anenterotn'ma freitaxi and A. It is probable lhal additional collections will indicate a general lack of host specificity.

The biology of this genus is completely unknown. Inasmuch as these ire- matodes are so unusual morphologically, additional studies are needed.

Family Dicrocoeliidae. Type iocaiiiy. The only other species in mammals, A. The ecology, pathology, and life cycle of A, parkeri are unknown.

Paraiiietadelphis eonipacttis Travassos, Type iiost. Nothing is known of its biology. Type localiiy. Although the pathology and ecology are not known, Koga reported briefly on the life cycle of LiTithodendriinn ayenifonne Ogata, Virgulate cercariae develop in an aquatic snail, Semisnlcospira iibertina, and encyst in Stenop.

Bats are infected by ingesting the meta- cercariae transmitted by the trichopteran second intermediate host. The genus Lecithoiiendrinm contains numerous species occurring in bats and chameleons.

At least 19 species occur in bats but all species except L. S Chtnandega, 10 m. TEL Site of inf —Small intestine. Limatutum oklahoniense Macy, Type host.

She i f infectiotL —Small intestine. Seven species occur in the genus and ail except L. The ecology of this genus is unknow n. Site of itifet'tion.

Other hosts,—-Noctilio leporinns, N. Webster reported that Pieronotns macleayii and Tadarida hrasiHensis from Jamaica w'erc also hosts to this parasite.

Keys to this complex of species w ere presented by Macy Caballero y Caballero further considered Urotrematnltmi Macy, synonymous with U. Inasmuch as body shape, a more posterior position of the ovary from the acetabulum, lobed testes, and vitellaria that begin posterior to the acetabulum are all specific characters, it is doubtful that Urotrematnlnm is distinct.

It is more reasonable to consider this species as Urotrenm attennainm Macy, Caballero y Caballero, , and distinct from U. Site of infect —Small inlestinc.

Other species of Oocitori. Other recofds. KU ; Daraili, 5 km. N, 14 km, E Condega, m. KU E, Thomas contained several cestodes of this species.

The specimens differ slightly in some measurements and at the present time they are provisionally considered as Vampirolepis eknigatas.

An excellent review of host records of Vampirolepis spp. Vampirolepis elongatas is most closely related to V.

X Ihe surface of Vampirolepis efongiKtiS is clearly similar to other hymenolepidiid cestodes in that it is cellular and covered with a dense microvillar surface that presumably aids in the absorption of available nutrients from the host see Ubelaker et uL, Examination of the strobila by scanning electron microscopy reveals that even the terminal proglottids filled with eggs are covered by a dense absorptive surface Fig.

As groups of proglottid. Litomosoides brasiJiensis Linsde Almeida, Type h fst. Although positive identification cannot be determined until the original specimens are reexamined, they are probably Idtotnosoides hrasiiiensis.

Litoinusoides ealien. Litomosoicles chandleri Esslinger, Type host. Site of infect ion. Site of iufectioti. Type ioeality. Other records,—Artibeus jamaicensls in the vicinity of the type locality also were found to be infected Esslinger, Other records, —None to date.

Wc recovered a single specimen of this species in Glossophaga soricina KU from Las Margaritas, m.

Litomosoides teshi Esslinger, Type host. Site of infectkm. Of the 10 species found in bats, seven are recorded from a single host species and another, Litomosoides colombiensis, is recorded from only two host genera, Artibeus and Vampyrops.

Only two species, Litomosoides brasiiiensis and L. Although these adult filariids tend to be relatively host specific, a given bat may serve as the definitive host for several members of this genus, for example, Ariiheus JwuaicL'nsis has been found to host Lifomosoidt's chatidieri, L.

Mature females give birth ovoviviparously to microfilariae, which migrate to the circulatory system and are picked up from the peripheral blocxi by miles that serv'C as the vector.

Such microfilariae probably represent members of the genus Litomosokivs, but no author prior to Esslinger has attempted to identify these nematodes on the basis of larval structures alone.

Fam ily Tr ic h ost rongy 1 idae Biucantha desjtioda Wolfgang, Type host. She t f infevtkoL —-Small intestine. Type locuiity.

Bidigiticauda vivipara Chitwood, Type host,—A rtibeiis januttcensis. Type tociilify. Other records,—Artibeus jamaivensisr. Costa Rica: l. JDS no.

JKJ no. S Boaco, m. S, 3 km. E Rivas, 50 m. N, 9 km, E Matagalpa, m. TEL no. DLK no. Remarks ,—The characteristic posterior extremity of this species is presented in Fig.

Note platelike teeth in vestibule arrow. X Fk;. X 2K40 B[Ol. Papillae at arrow are raised above the cnticle. X The cephalic characters, including the six cephalic papillae and the teeth in the vestibule, are also shown Figs.

Type —Yucatan, Mexico. W Sabana de San Ouinlin, m. SE San Clemente, m. N Sabana Grande, 50 ni. S Chinandega, 10 m. CER no.

DLKJ no. NE Pichucalco, m. N, 14 km. E Condega, m. S, 3 km, E Rivas, 50 m. JKJ no, , 7 July The records cited above represent new' host.

Lhere is no information on the biology or pathology of this species. ClyptostrongyliJS col laris nomen nudum 7 yp e lufs!

Type kK'ality. W e can find no other published record. Iltsliostrongyliis coronatus Molin, Type host. Site f infeciioth- —Small intestine. Other reporis ,— Fhyllostomus discohm.

SE San Clemente, ni. N Sabana Grande, 50 m. LMH no. E Riva. TEL, 24 July Phyllonycteris pinyi: Ct. Cuba Barus and del Valle, Histiosfrangy 1 us actacantha l.

Cephalic collar clear circle is collapsed. Lateral papillae arrow are prominent. Higher magnification of head showing mouth opening. E Rivas, 50 m, CER no.

We have not verified this report, Torrestrongj liis toirei Perez-Vigucras Type host. Trichtdeiperia leiperi Travassos, Type fu Sl.

Site ff infeefioti ,—Small intestine. Other reptmfs. Unidentified strongyJict nematodes Host. Type locaiity. Type hosr.

SHe of infeaion. Other reports. Capillaria phylloiiycteris Barus and del Valle, Type h fsi. Type ioccility. Capitlaria pintoi Teixera de Freitas, Type host.

Type iocality ,—B razil. Cupillarta pusUla Travassos, Type hxrsi. Site of infectioti. Site of infeet Ion ,—Small intestine. Type heakty. Until more information is available on species variation, the above species in bats are considered valid.

These have come down from its ancestors and not from another kind that nested in a hole right next to it! In the phyl- lostomatid bats under consideration here, ecological factors are of paramount concern, especially when two or more host species come into close physical pro.

Among ectoparasitic arthropods, the wing mites of the family Spinturnicidae Acarina, Mesostigniata have attracted the most attention because most members show modified life cycles with reduced nymphal stages and the dcvelopmeni of ovoviviparity Baer, ; Rudnick, I I'he haemoflageltales of bats have been rather extensively inve.

The study of blood sporozoans for H[Ol. Again, such organisms are also easy to obtain under field conditions. Only a single adult acanthocephalan is recorded from phylloslomatid bats.

Bams reported an acanthella of Pachi- semis sp. Barns suggested that bats exhibit reservoir parasitism of an active accumulating type.

The remarks concerning the acanthocephala are also generally tme for the pentasiomids. If the few available reports arc indicative, reservoir parasitism is involved here also.

Although trematodcs arc reasonably common in phyllostomatid bats, they generally lack specificity in these hosts.

The genus Anenteroiremu seems to be mainly associated with the leaf-no. There are no life cycles available for any ircmatode species in phyllostomatid bats.

Because the various members of AncnftriHteniu lack a digestive tract, the establishment of this parasite as a laboratory model would allow important advances in the biology of trematodes, especially in nutrition.

Only a single species of cestode, Vampimlcpis t'lonffiaus is of interest in light of this discu-ssion, for it appears to be restricted to the Phyllosiomatidae except for a single report in Mitiossns ater.

The numerous records from Brazil, Nicaragua, Colombia, and southern Mexico, suggest this organism is the major tapeworm of leaf-nosed bats.

Inasmuch as this organism is not rare in occurrence, studies on life cycle, pathology, and so forth may be feasible. Inglis examined patterns of evolution in nematodes.

According to this author, generally, parasitic nematodes arc not host specific but they tend to occur in animals with similar feeding and ecological habitats.

Both seem to have existed before the Paleocenc Patterson, and perhaps split as early as the Eocene. I he genus Bkaantfia is known only from the Neotropical region with B.

A second species, B. Although several species are recorded from only a single host species, additional records are badly needed before confidence can be placed on the degree of host specitT city.

At present, it is impossible to make definitive conclusions on the evolution of any bat species by examining endoparasites.

I heir role as intermediate hosts is minimal. Although Parocephalux vrutali functions as a larval parasite in Phyilos- totuus disc? Most endoparasites use phyllostomatid bats a.

Additional collections should clarify these relationships. Summary The cndoparasites of phyllostoniatid bats are reviewed for the first time, A historical review' emphasises the lack of systematic collections of parasites from this group of hats.

The major parasitic groups reviewed include the Protozoa, Acanthocephala, Pentastomida, Trcmatoda, Cestoda, and Ncmatoda.

Scanning electron photomicrographs are presented for Vumpyrolcpis idonga- liis, Cheiropterottema glofyocepbctla, Biacufufui dcsoioda, Bidigidcauda vivipara, and Porocephalas CTOtali.

Porocephaias croiali is reported from Epicsicus fusca. Addendum After the present review was submitted, several articles have been published, and others brought to our attention, which should be mentioned here.

He divided the smaller forms of the classical vesperfilkmis group into two subgenera, Schizoirypanimi T. His fourth subgenus, Trypanozoon, included T.

He emphasized, as did we, that the forms in the subgenus Svhizottypanum are difficult to. An excellent review' of cestodes in the genus Hymetwiepis from bats in North America and Hawaii w'as w'ritten by Rausch Rausch also discussed briefly the zoogeography of cestcxles of bats.

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